"A problem is said to be Turing-complete if it can only be solved by a Turing machine or any system that is TuringEquivalent. Often programming languages that are TuringEquivalent are said to be TuringComplete. A given programming language is said to be Turing-complete if it can be shown that it is computationally equivalent to a Turing machine." In essence, a problem that can be solved on a Turing machine with a limited amount of resources such as time, and tape, can also be solved with the other language using a limited amount of its resources . One may prove that a programming language is Turing-complete by providing a process for translating another given Turing machine program into an equivalent program in the language. Alternately, one can provide a scheme used to translate another language, one that has already been proven to be Turing-complete ("Turing Complete").
According to Wolfram MathWorld, "A Turing machine is a theoretical computing machine invented by Alan Turing (1937) to serve as an idealized model for mathematical calculation. A Turing machine consists of a line of cells known as a "tape" that can be moved back and forth, an active element known as the "head" that possesses a property known as "state" and that can change the property known as "color" of the active cell underneath it, and a set of instructions for how the head should modify the active cell and move the tape. At each step, the machine may modify the color of the active cell, change the state of the head, and then move the tape one unit to the left or right" ("Turing Machine.").
A distributed system consists of a collection of singled-out computers that have been connected through a network and distribution middleware, which enables these computers to organize their activities and share the resources of the system, so that the users of the distributed system perceive them as a single, integrated computing facility ("Distributed Systems Principles."). An application of distributed systems is two pulsars on Einstein@Home project.
Einstein@Home is a distributed computing project that runs on volunteers' computers and searches for gravitational waves in LIGO data and binary pulsars in Arecibo PALFA data. "J2007+27 is an isolated pulsar with a period of 24.49 ms. Einstein@Home's unusually large duty cycle and the presence of emission almost throughout the rotation period suggests that its magnetic and spin axes are nearly aligned. Limits on the period derivative, magnetic field, and age indicate that this is the fastest-spinning disrupted recycled pulsar known to date. J1952+26 has a period of 20.73 ms and is in a 7-hour binary. Assuming a pulsar mass of 1.4 Msun, the system's mass function indicates that the minimum companion mass is 0.95 Msun. The companion is likely a neutron star or a massive white dwarf, which makes the system an excellent candidate for Shapiro delay measurement and therefore an accurate estimate of the pulsar and companion masses" ("Two Pulsar Discoveries from…Project").
How connected are we seems like a very reasonable question, especially in the 21st century. The use of Social Network is more prevalent than ever. Every day, people spend countless hours immersed in popular technologies-such as Facebook or MySpace, World of Warcraft, or Sim City, of which it aims to connect individuals with similar interests or personalities. These technologies are already demonstrating how they impact the way we think, learn, and interact-and they are also demonstrating the tremendous potential they have in these areas as well.
The emergence of social networking technologies and the evolution of digital games have helped shape the new ways in which people are communicating, collaborating, operating, and forming social constructs. Nearly all institutions - business, industry, medicine, science and government - have introduced aspects of these technologies for decades (Klopfer et al.).
Tim Berners-Lee is a computer scientist well-known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He graduated from the Queen's College at Oxford University, England, 1976.
In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee introduced a global hypertext project, to be known as the World Wide Web. He proposed this while working at at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland.
This project was based on helping people work conjunctly by combining their knowledge in a web of hypertext documents.
Tim Burners-Lee wrote the first World Wide Web server called "httpd". In addition the first client called "World Wide Web". Although, this work was started in October 1990, the program of which was called "World Wide Web" was first made available within CERN in December, and later introduced on the Internet in the summer of 1991.
Tim continued working on the design of the Web through 1991 and 1993, obtaining and coordinating feedback from users across the Internet. According to w3.org, "his initial specifications of URIs, HTTP and HTML were refined and discussed in larger circles as the Web technology spread. He initially wrote his first program for storing information including using random associations. Named "Enquire" and never published, this program formed the conceptual basis for the future development of the World Wide Web" ("Longer Biography." ).